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Java / XML

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What is XML?

XML stands for Extensible Markup language which means you can extend XML based on your needs. You can define custom tags like , etc in XML easily as opposed to other markup languages. The structure of XML can be standardized by making use of DTD and XML Schema. XML is mostly used to transfer data from one system to another, for example, between client and server in enterprise applications.

Difference between DTD and XML Schema.

DTD stands for Document Type definition and was a legacy way to define the structure of XML documents. XML schema is designed after DTD and it offers more types to map different types of data in XML documents.

DTD is not written using XML while XML schema are xml documents in itself, which means existing XML tools like XML parsers can be used to work with XML schema.

What is XPath?

XPath is an XML technology which is used to retrieve element from XML documents. Since XML documents are structured, XPath expression can be used to locate and retrieve elements, attributes or value from XML files.

How to select elements in XPATH based on attribute and element value?
        <employee id="1">
        <employee id="2">

In this example, to extract the age of employee Adam, the XPATH will be /employees/employee[name/text()='Adam']/age.

The text() function returns value of name element and [] brackets defines condition/predicate to compare name tag text with 'Adam'.

Another example of XPATH to find the age of employee by id =1 is /employees/employee[@id='1']/age and the result will be 32. Here [] is used for condition and @ is used to get value from attribute.

What is XSLT?

XSLT is a popular XML technology to transform one XML file to other XML, HTML or any other format. XSLT language specifies its own syntax, functions, and operator to transform XML documents. Usually, transformation is done by XSLT Engine which reads instruction written using XSLT syntax in XML style sheets or XSL files. One of the best examples of using XSLT is for displaying data present in XML files as HTML pages.

Difference between DOM and SAX XML Parser in Java.

DOM parser loads entire XML document in memory while SAX only loads the part of the XML file in memory.

DOM parser is faster than SAX because it accesses complete XML document in memory.

SAX parser is suitable for large XML files than DOM Parser because it doesn't require much memory.

DOM parser works on Document Object Model while SAX is an event based XML parser.

Prefer DOM parser over SAX parser if XML file is small otherwise use SAX parser if you don’t know the size of XML files to be processed or if it is large.

What is XML namespace?

XML namespace is similar to package in Java that provides a way to avoid conflict between two xml tags of same name but different sources. XML namespace is defined using xmlns attribute at top of the XML document and has following syntax xmlns:prefix=’URI’. That prefix is used along with actual tag in XML documents.

<root xmlns:javapedia="">

What is XML data Binding in Java?

XML binding in Java refers to creating Java classes and object from XML documents and then modifying XML documents using Java.JAXB ,a Java API for XML binding provides convenient way to bind XML documents with Java objects.

Can you create a XML document using SAX parser?

Not recommended. Use SAX parser to parse or edit a XML document.It is better to use StAX parser for creating XML documents rather than using SAX parser.

What is SAX parser?

SAX stands for Simple API for XML. SAX Parser is an event-based parser for xml documents.

Difference between JAXB and DOM/SAX Parsers,

The Java DOM and SAX parsing APIs are lower-level APIs to parse XML documents, while JAXB is a higher-level API for converting XML elements and attributes to a Java object hierarchy (and vice versa).

Implementations of JAXB will use a DOM or SAX parser behind the scenes to do the actual parsing of the XML input data.

JAXB will be easier to use and less code than using the DOM or SAX parsing API.

How do I validate an XML file against XSD file?

The Java runtime library supports validation which is backed by Apache Xerces parser.


import javax.xml.XMLConstants;
import javax.xml.transform.Source;
import javax.xml.validation.Schema;
import javax.xml.validation.SchemaFactory;
import javax.xml.validation.Validator;

import org.xml.sax.SAXException;

public class XMLValidation {

	public static void main(String[] args) throws MalformedURLException {
		URL schemaFile = new URL("http://host:port/filename.xsd");
		Source xmlFile = new StreamSource(new File("web.xml"));
		SchemaFactory schemaFactory = SchemaFactory.newInstance(XMLConstants.W3C_XML_SCHEMA_NS_URI);
		try {
			Schema schema = schemaFactory.newSchema(schemaFile);
			Validator validator = schema.newValidator();
			System.out.println(xmlFile.getSystemId() + " is valid.");
		} catch (SAXException e) {
			System.out.println(xmlFile.getSystemId() + " is NOT valid xml, The reason is:" + e);
		} catch (IOException e) {

Garbage collection

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