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DataStructures / System Design

Explain 12-Factor App methodology.

The Twelve(12)-Factor App methodology is a methodology for building software-as-a-service applications. These best practices are designed to enable applications to be built with portability and resilience when deployed to the web.

CodebaseThere should be exactly one codebase for a deployed service with the codebase being used for many deployments.
DependenciesAll dependencies should be declared, with no implicit reliance on system tools or libraries.
ConfigConfiguration that varies between deployments should be stored in the environment.
Backing servicesAll backing services are treated as attached resources and attached and detached by the execution environment.
Build, release, runThe delivery pipeline should strictly consist of build, release, run.
ProcessesApplications should be deployed as one or more stateless processes with persisted data stored on a backing service.
Port bindingSelf-contained services should make themselves available to other services by specified ports.
ConcurrencyConcurrency is advocated by scaling individual processes.
DisposabilityFast startup and shutdown are advocated for a more robust and resilient system.
Dev/Prod parityAll environments should be as similar as possible.
LogsApplications should produce logs as event streams and leave the execution environment to aggregate.
Admin ProcessesAny needed admin tasks should be kept in source control and packaged with the application.

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