DataStructures / System Design
Explain 12-Factor App methodology.
The Twelve(12)-Factor App methodology is a methodology for building software-as-a-service applications. These best practices are designed to enable applications to be built with portability and resilience when deployed to the web.
|Codebase||There should be exactly one codebase for a deployed service with the codebase being used for many deployments.|
|Dependencies||All dependencies should be declared, with no implicit reliance on system tools or libraries.|
|Config||Configuration that varies between deployments should be stored in the environment.|
|Backing services||All backing services are treated as attached resources and attached and detached by the execution environment.|
|Build, release, run||The delivery pipeline should strictly consist of build, release, run.|
|Processes||Applications should be deployed as one or more stateless processes with persisted data stored on a backing service.|
|Port binding||Self-contained services should make themselves available to other services by specified ports.|
|Concurrency||Concurrency is advocated by scaling individual processes.|
|Disposability||Fast startup and shutdown are advocated for a more robust and resilient system.|
|Dev/Prod parity||All environments should be as similar as possible.|
|Logs||Applications should produce logs as event streams and leave the execution environment to aggregate.|
|Admin Processes||Any needed admin tasks should be kept in source control and packaged with the application.|
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